LR Hard

1. Armchair anthropologists of the Victorian Era rarely visited the lands in whose cultures they proclaimed themselves experts, and were as likely as not to call the inhabitants “savages”. By contrast, contemporary anthropologists, who are not taken seriously unless they have lived for a time among the people they study, are likely to use the more enlightened term “indigenous people”.

The author’s assertion about the superiority of contemporary anthropologists rests on which of the following assumptions about the word enlightened?

(A) Victorian Era anthropologists often considered themselves enlightened even though they had never lived among the cultures they studied.

(B) To be enlightened requires spending time among the people being studied.

(C) The goal of contemporary anthropology is to become enlightened.

(D) A person who has been enlightened cannot, by definition, be called a savage.

(E) Anthropologists must be enlightened before they are properly prepared to spend time among the people they study.

Argument Construction

Situation: The passage contrasts Victorian Era anthropologists and contemporary anthropologists. Contemporary anthropologists are considered more enlightened.

Reasoning: Which of the following identifies the assumption made in the use of the word enlightened? The specific contrast drawn between the two groups of anthropologists is that contemporary anthropologists often spend time living among the people they study, whereas Victorian Era anthropologists usually did not. According to the author of the passage, it is the time spent among the people they study that makes contemporary anthropologists more enlightened.

(A) The passage does not discuss whether Victorian Era anthropologists considered themselves enlightened.

(B) Contemporary anthropologists are considered more enlightened because, unlike Victorian Era anthropologists, they are likely to have lived among the people they study.

(C) The passage does not make this claim.

(D) The passage does not address the application of the word enlightened to people being studied.

(E) The passage actually argues that anthropologists are enlightened because, or after, they spend time among the people they study.

The correct answer is (B).

2. Substances with similar scents often have vastly different molecular structures. The scents of marzipan and cyanide, for example, both contain strong hints of almond. The molecular structures of the substances, however, make them appropriate for nearly opposite uses: marzipan is often found in gourmet desserts, and cyanide is a powerful poison.

Which of the following conclusions can most reasonably be drawn from information in the passage above?

(A) Molecular structures of substances with similar scents are always vastly different.

(B) Molecular structures of unknown substances can often be predicted based on their scents.

(C) Scents of unknown substances cannot be predicted accurately based only on their molecular structure.

(D) Scents of poisonous substances are usually similar to scents of non-poisonous foods.

(E) Marzipan and cyanide have similar scents, and can therefore be assumed to contain similar elements.

Argument Construction

Situation: Scents of substances often have no direct relationship to their molecular structure.

Reasoning: Which conclusion can be drawn from the passage? The main point of the passage is that the molecular structure of a substance does not determine its scent in a predictable way; substances of similar scents may have very different molecular structures, and vice versa. Marzipan and cyanide are examples of two substances that bear similar scents, but are so different in molecular structure that one is a food and the other is a poison.

(A) The passage gives an example of two substances where this is the case, but does not argue that substances with similar scents are always different in molecular structure.

(B) The passage argues the opposite.

(C) The passage uses the example of marzipan and cyanide to demonstrate that scents of substances cannot be accurately predicted based on their molecular structure.

(D) Though this is true in the case of cyanide and marzipan, the word usually overstates the case made in the passage.

(E) This conclusion cannot be drawn from the passage.

The correct answer is (C).

3. Studies have shown that men age 18-27 who have owned a pet for at least two years before marrying are 35% less likely to divorce. Researchers conclude that caring for a pet prepares men for long-term, healthy relationships in marriage.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the conclusion that men who have owned pets are prepared for healthy marriages?

(A) Studies have shown that pet ownership drastically reduces daily stress levels.

(B) Many successful marriages are based on emotional investment in a common interest, such as a pet.

(C) Many men who have been married for 25 years or more continue to own pets.

(D) Men who have not owned pets for at least two years before marrying are more likely to divorce.

(E) Men whose wives owned a pet for at least two years are equally as unlikely to divorce.

Argument Evaluation

Situation: Researchers have concluded that men who have owned a pet for at least two years are prepared for healthy marriages.

Reasoning: Which option most strengthens the conclusion? Researchers based their conclusion on an assumed connection between sustained care for a pet and care for a spouse. Men who care for pets, the argument runs, are also statistically more likely to sustain marriage relationships. The correct answer will provide additional evidence of this correlation.

(A) While this may be true, it does not introduce additional evidence to support the conclusion.

(B) This option does not address the question of why men who own pets are less likely to divorce.

(C) The question concerns men who have owned pets before marrying, not after.

(D) This option provides additional evidence of a statistical correlation between pet ownership and the likelihood of divorce.

(E) The question concerns men, not their wives.

The correct answer is (D).

4. The method by which attorneys at Watson & Crick bill for their time is inherently faulty. Accounting rules allow billing for a full hour even when an attorney has not worked on a specific file for a full 60 minutes. Inevitably, this practice will lead to attorneys billing for more full hours than they actually work, passing on false expenses to clients anytime they open a file or pick up the phone.

Which of the following, if true, constitutes the best piece of evidence for countering the claim that attorneys at Watson & Crick are likely to bill for more full hours than they work?

(A) Attorneys at Watson & Crick are required to attend annual ethics seminars, during which over-billing is strongly discouraged.

(B) Senior partners at Watson & Crick typically bill more than 60 hours per week.

(C) Accounting rules at Watson & Crick only allow attorneys to bill for a full hour if they have performed more than one task for a client in a given day.

(D) Attorney fees at Watson & Crick are calculated based on 15-minute segments of billing time.

(E) Attorneys often have tremendous workloads and expect to be reasonably compensated for time spent working for clients.

Argument Evaluation

Situation: The author of the passage claims that attorneys at a law firm are likely to bill for more hours than they work.

Reasoning: Which best counters the claim that attorneys are likely to bill for more hours than they work? The author of the passage is concerned with an accounting rule at the law firm that allows attorneys to bill for full hours even if they have not worked a full 60 minutes. It is assumed that attorneys will be able to bill for a full hour even if they perform only the briefest of tasks for a client. If, however, it can be shown that the firm’s accounting rules will not permit the abuses that trouble the author of the passage, the claim will be effectively countered.

(A) Though over-billing may be strongly discouraged, this option does not present conclusive evidence that abusive billing practices will be prevented.

(B) The number of hours billed by attorneys at the firm provides no evidence for how many hours were worked, making a determination about over-billing impossible.

(C) This option would actually strengthen the author’s claim that attorneys are likely to bill full hours for brief tasks.

(D) This option provides adequate evidence to counter the author’s claim. If fees at the firm are determined in 15-minute, rather than an hourly, segments, then attorneys will not be able to bill for a full hour unless they have performed work during four 15-minute intervals.

(E) This may speak to the mindset of attorneys, but does not directly address the author’s concern.

The correct answer is (D).

5. The life expectancy of people living below the poverty line in the United States is seven years shorter than the national average. A public health advocate argues that this is due to the fact that the poor can not afford preventative medical care and often live in substandard housing where harmful substances such as lead paint and asbestos are common. An expansion of health insurance services to those below the poverty line is an ultimately more cost-efficient way of raising life expectancy, because preventative care will forestall many expensive emergency treatments.

Which of the following, if true, accurately identifies the most significant flaw in the public health advocate’s argument that health insurance services for those below the poverty line should be expanded?

(A) The public health advocate does not provide sufficient information about the amount of money that will be saved by preventing emergency medical treatments.

(B) The expansion of health insurance services to those below the poverty line will not address health problems caused by substandard housing.

(C) Many health care providers are especially concerned with treating complications caused by exposure to lead paint and asbestos.

(D) Census results do not clearly indicate what percentage of the population falls below the poverty line.

(E) Lead paint and asbestos, though they cause medical problems, have not been conclusively proven to shorten life expectancy.

Argument Evaluation

Situation: A public health advocate argues that making more health insurance services available to people below the poverty line will save money by avoiding emergency medical treatments. Emergency medical treatments are needed because those below the poverty line can not pay for preventative medical care. Dangerous substances in substandard housing are mentioned as a second factor contributing to a lower-than-average life expectancy.

Reasoning: What is the flaw in the advocate’s argument that health insurance services should be expanded? The public health advocate argues that expanded insurance services should be offered to those below the poverty line in order to prevent expensive emergency treatments. The expansion of insurance services, however, would only address one of the factors the advocate claims contribute to a shorter life expectancy.

(A) While this may be true, it is not the argument’s most serious flaw.

(B) This option correctly identifies the flaw in the public health advocate’s argument. The advocate presents both lack of preventative care and substandard housing as factors shortening life expectancy, but the proposed solution only addresses one of the factors.

(C) This option does not directly address the health care advocate’s argument.

(D) The passage is concerned with matters relating to those below the poverty line, not with determining the exact percentage of the population it includes.

(E) This option does not directly address the expansion of health insurance services to those below the poverty line.

The correct answer is B.

6. The argument that an expansion of health insurance services to those below the poverty line will forestall expensive emergency treatments assumes that

(A) Life expectancy can be increased by preventative medical care.

(B) There are an adequate number of physicians available to provide preventative medical care to all those below the poverty line.

(C) Expanded insurance plans will also treat complications caused by exposure to lead paint and asbestos in substandard housing.

(D) Lead paint and asbestos are not as significant in reducing life expectancy as lack of preventative medical care.

(E) Recipients of expanded health insurance coverage would take advantage of preventative medical care if they had the option.

Argument Evaluation

Situation:
A public health advocate argues that making more health insurance services available to people below the poverty line will ultimately save money by preventing emergency medical treatments. The advocate says that emergency medical treatments are needed because those below the poverty line can not pay for preventative medical care. Dangerous substances in substandard housing are mentioned as a second factor contributing to a lower-than-average life expectancy.

Reasoning: Which is the assumption supporting the argument that health insurance will prevent emergency treatments? According to the advocate’s reasoning in the last sentence of the passage, more medical insurance translates directly into fewer emergency treatments. The correct answer will most clearly undermine this direct connection.

(A) While the passage as a whole assumes this, it is not the assumption made in connecting expanded health insurance with forestalling emergency treatments.

(B) The number of physicians available is not directly relevant to the connection between health insurance and expensive emergency treatments.

(C) Treatment of complications likely in substandard housing is not discussed in the passage.

(D) This idea is not addressed in the passage.

(E) This option correctly identifies the assumption connecting expanded health insurance with preventing emergency medical treatments. It is possible that those covered by health insurance would not seek preventative care.

The correct answer is E.

7. Since viewers consistently imitate the behaviors they see on TV, continued exposure to violent programs will cause more people to consider violence an acceptable way of solving problems. In order to prevent a nationwide increase in violent crime, the government should ban the broadcast of violent programs.

Which of the following is most similar to the passage above in logical structure?

(A) A judge finds the publisher of a chemistry textbook liable when a group of college students uses an experiment described in the book to start a fire in a rival’s dorm room.

(B) A mother bans her teenage sons from watching violent television shows after they are involved in a series of fights with classmates.

(C) A teacher hides the jar of candy she usually keeps on her desk in order to prevent students from gorging on it and ruining their lunch.

(D) A tour guide does not reveal to his clients the location of the town’s best ice cream shop because he has been upbraided by the shop’s owners for sending in too large a crowd.

(E) A restaurant manager refuses to distribute fliers advertising an upcoming political rally because she does not support the candidate.

Argument Construction

Situation: The author argues that the government should ban violent television programs before the programs cause a national increase in violent crime.

Reasoning: Which of the following uses a logical structure most similar to the logical structure of the passage? The author assumes in the first sentence that viewers who watch violent television programs will themselves become more violent. Since a higher crime rate is not desirable, the author suggests that the government deter more people from committing violent crimes by preventing the public’s exposure to the cause of crime: violent television programs. Also note that the passage proposes a solution designed to prevent, not to punish, violent crime.

(A) The judge’s decision does not represent a preventative measure, nor does this example assume a continuing connection between exposure to chemistry textbooks and dorm fires.

(B) Though this option contains a similar theme to the passage, the mother’s decision is made after the misbehavior of her sons and is intended as a punishment.

(C) This situation is most similar to the passage in logical structure. The teacher assumes a connection between the observation of candy and students ruining their lunch by eating too much; her action is also a preventative measure.

(D) The tour guide’s action is a preventative measure, but the unpleasant outcome would come from the shop’s owners, not the crowd, and would affect only the tour guide.

(E) A restaurant manager refuses to distribute fliers advertising an upcoming political rally because she does not support the candidate.

The correct answer is C.

8. Last year sales tax in State Y was raised by 1%, with the additional revenues promised to fund improvements in education. Representative Smith has proposed that the portion of sales tax revenues allotted to County X � some $5 million � be used to build additional schools and access roads in outlying areas, where even major streets are often impassable due to flooding. Representative Smith has already posted on his website blueprints detailing 3 new schools and 2 roadways designed to be unaffected by floods.

Which of the following, if true, represents the largest obstacle facing Representative Smith’s plan to use sales tax revenues to build additional schools in outlying areas of County X?

(A) County X has rejected a proposal to establish toll stations along frequently-traveled roads in the county, even though funds raised were to be directed to Representative Smith’s project.

(B) Students in County X currently travel an average of 20 miles in order to reach an existing school.

(C) More densely populated counties in State Y will receive a larger percentage of the total revenues generated by the sales tax increase.

(D) Provisions of the sales tax revenue rules allow funds to be used for any project impacting the education of at least 2% of students in County X.

(E) The state has stipulated that sales tax revenues designated for education be used only for the construction or remodeling of school buildings, and curriculum improvements.

Evaluation of a Plan

Situation: A lawmaker proposes to use state money to build more schools in outlying areas of County X, where roads are often closed due to flooding. The lawmaker’s plans include proposals for both schools and more dependable roads.

Reasoning: Which of the following is most damaging to the plan to build more schools? As the passage makes clear, the success of Representative Smith’s plan depends on the ability to complete two different construction projects: new schools and new roads. If for any reason there will not be funding available for both of Representative Smith’s projects, his plan will likely not succeed.

(A) This option, though it demonstrates a lack of additional financing, does not present an obstacle to Representative Smith’s plan as detailed in the passage.

(B) This option may strengthen the argument for additional schools, but it does not directly address Representative Smith’s plan.

(C) The amount of revenue directed to other counties in State Y is not directly relevant to a plan for County X.

(D) This option would actually strengthen Representative Smith’s plan, because it would allow funds to be used for the construction of both schools and roadways.

(E) This option correctly identifies the major shortcoming of Representative Smith’s plan: if the state will not allow funds to be used for the construction of new roads, then the plan to build both new schools and new means of access will likely fail.

The correct answer is E.

9. Clean-burning coal power plants represent an improvement over traditional coal power plants because they are more efficient at capturing greenhouse gases before they are emitted into the atmosphere.

Although the large coal deposits of the Eastern United States make coal an economically cheap resource, the environmental damage caused by current methods of extraction makes coal an environmentally unwise choice as an energy source.

If the statements above are true, which of the following conclusions can be most properly drawn about clean-burning coal power plants?

(A) Clean-burning coal power plants can prevent one type of environmental damage while indirectly causing another.

(B) Environmental groups will protest the construction of more clean-burning coal power plants because they capture insufficient amounts of greenhouse gases.

(C) In the long-term, the money saved by using inexpensive coal as an energy source will outweigh the cost of building more clean-burning power plants.

(D) Most new clean-burning coal power plants will be built in the Eastern United States, where supplies of cheap coal are plentiful.

(E) Most traditional coal power plants, especially those in the Eastern United States, will be demolished to make room for newer, clean-burning plants.

Argument Construction

Situation: Clean burning coal power plants emit fewer greenhouse gases that traditional coal burning power plants. As an energy source, coal is inexpensive economically, but methods of extraction cause environmental damage.

Reasoning:
Which conclusion can be drawn about clean burning coal power plants? Methods of extracting coal, according to the passage, cause environmental damage that outweighs coal’s usefulness as an inexpensive resource. Any conclusions about clean burning coal power plants must take this possibility of environmental damage into account.

(A) This statement properly recognizes the potential for environmental damage inherent in even clean burning coal power plants.

(B) Environmental groups are not mentioned in either statement, nor is it suggested that clean burning power plants capture an insufficient amount of greenhouse gases.

(C) The premises offer no information that can be used to directly compare the economic costs of coal extraction with the building of new clean burning coal power plants.

(D) This conclusion does not take into account the necessary consideration of environmental damage.

(E) The passage offers no information that can be used to reach this conclusion.

The correct answer is A.

10. Charity Hospital Board Member: It does not make sense to continue pouring money into print advertising when telephone solicitation is a more effective fundraising method. We currently employ three people full-time whose only job is to call families of former patients and ask them to donate.

EACH of the following, if true, undermines the argument that print advertising should be discontinued in favor of telephone solicitation EXCEPT

(A) Funds paying the salaries of the telephone solicitors represent a slightly larger dollar amount than money received through their fundraising efforts.

(B) Inaccurate record-keeping makes it difficult to determine what percentage of total fundraising dollars were raised according to which method.

(C) A survey reveals that most of those who gave money to the hospital were first exposed to a fundraising ad in the newspaper and viewed the telephone call as a follow-up.

(D) A survey reveals that most of those who gave money to the hospital did so because they had emotionally connected with a fundraiser over the telephone.

(E) A survey reveals that most of those who declined to donate to the hospital did so because they were offended by the approach of the telephone solicitors.

Argument Evaluation

Situation: A hospital board member argues that print advertising should be discontinued as a fundraising method because telephone solicitation is more cost-effective.

Reasoning: Which ONE of the following strengthens the argument that telephone solicitation is preferable to print advertising? The word except in the question stem signals that the correct answer will be the only one that does not undermine the argument presented in the passage. The correct answer will demonstrate that telephone solicitation more effective.

(A) This option undermines the argument by demonstrating that the hospital actually pays more in telephone solicitor salaries than the solicitors raise, leading to a net loss.

(B) This option undermines the argument by demonstrating that a comparison of print advertising and telephone solicitation can not be made.

(C) The argument is undermined here by a demonstration of the effectiveness of print advertising.

(D) This option is the only one that strengthens the argument in the passage. It demonstrates that most people who donated to the hospital did so because of a telephone solicitor.

(E) The argument is undermined here by evidence that telephone solicitation is not only less effective, but counter-productive.

The correct answer is D.

Next LSAT: January 26

Next LSAT: January 26