There’s no avoiding that you need to learn some formal logic before tackling the LSAT. No worries; this will be about the easy and intuitive.
The most basic logic rule is the Conditional (which is just a phrase like A → B).
If A, then B.
If James competes, then Macro must go to the race as a coach.
Translate Phrases Into Conditionals
The item on the left in an If… then… statement is called the Sufficient and the one on the right is the Conditional. They bury these conditionals in convoluted language. It’s rarely stated bluntly as “if… then….“:
Sufficient flag words
Conditional flag words
Next LSAT: June 3rd
Translate: Each, If, Every, Any
If every member of a group has a trait, then you can just do group → trait.
All A’s are B’s is the same thing as A → B.
All dogs are mammals is equivalent to dog → mammal.
Every person who has gone to Yosemite never forgets it.
Goes to Yosemite → does not forget.
Whenever I speak to my boss I get nervous.
Speak to boss → gets nervous
Any LSAT student wants to master formal logic.
LSAT student → want to master formal logic
abbreviate: LS → WMFL
Translate: Only / Only If
The trick with only is that you will typically flip the order of the items in the sentence when translating to the conditional.
Only coffee can get Ricky up in the morning.
Ricky up → coffee
Ricky will go to the party only if Jenny does.
Jenny → Ricky
Only dogs bark at vacuum cleaners.
bark at vacuum cleaner → dog
No / None
Meet the tilde: ~
That squiggly line (~) or a slash through symbolizes the opposite or an inversion.
In this course we use both the tilde and the slash because you’ll see both versions in different LSAT courses.
No human has stepped foot on Mars.
Human → ~SFM
(SFM symbolizes “stepped foot on Mars.”)
None of the canned jellybeans are purple.
CJs → ~purple
(CJ abbreviates “canned jellybeans.”)
No Great White Sharks are vegetarians.
GWS → ~vegetarian
(GWS abbreviates “Great White Shark.”)
You’ll typically use the ~ symbol in “never” statements.
Next LSAT: June 3rd