4. Pairs (must be together)
Under this logical condition, A and B are inseparable.
Prof. Bazett of the University of Cincinnati introduces you to biconditionals in the following video (bi-conditionals combine two conditionals):
Biconditional Statements | “if and only if” Video Summary
- 0:13 – There are cases where both the original conditional and its converse are true. In these cases, we can have the biconditional.
- 0:24 – The biconditional uses a double-sided arrow. It means that both P → Q and Q → P are true.
- 0:45 – For example: If I study hard, then I will pass. We can diagram this as: P → Q.
- 0:58 – It can also be the other way around: If I pass, then I studied hard. We can diagram this as Q → P.
- 1:11 – Combining these statements make a single conjunctive statement. It becomes: If I study hard, then I will pass, and if I pass, then I studied hard.
- 1:50 – Combining them in a shorter way, the statement becomes: I will pass if and only if I study hard. Diagram this as: pass ↔ study.
- 2:09 – The if and only if (↔) phrase serves a shorthand for referring to biconditionals which means that both directions of a conditional statement are true.
This video is purpose-built for the LSAT and expands into combining biconditionals and contrapositives.
Biconditionals Video Summary
- 0:09 – Consider the statement: The party was a success if and only if everyone had a good time.
- 0:21 – This is a combination of two conditional statements. One is: The party was a success if everyone had a good time. The other is: The party was a success only if everyone had a good time.
- 1:02 – In this case, the sufficient condition is also a necessary condition, and the necessary condition is also a sufficient condition. This type of statement is called a biconditional.
- 1:26 – Biconditionals always use the phrase “if and only if”.
- 1:30 – Looking at the “if”, that conditional statement has the necessary condition first and the sufficient condition second. Meanwhile, looking at “only if”, the sufficient condition is first and the necessary condition is second.
- 1:45 – Diagram the first statement as: If the party was a success then everyone had a good time. (success → good time; contrapositive: ~good time → ~success)
- 2:21 – Diagram the second statement as: If everyone had a good time then the party was a success. (good time → success; contrapositive: ~success → ~good time)
- 2:51 – Infer that if either of the conditions is negative then the other one has to be negative as well.
- 3:29 – Use the two-headed arrow (↔) to symbolize when a conditional statement is a biconditional (the conditions are both sufficient and necessary). (success ↔ good time; contrapositive: ~success ↔ ~good time)
- 4:20 – Recap: A biconditional is two conditionals taken together where the sufficient condition is also a necessary condition and vice versa. The conditions in a biconditional always have to go together.
Next LSAT: January 13th
Inverted Pairs
What if you invert the original “if and only if” conditional: A → B + B → A?
Instead, you use: ~A → B + ~B → A
This results in an opposite condition because now the A and B can never be together.
Inverted Pair
A and B cannot be on the same team together.
Biconditional Examples
The company gains profit if and only if it earns more than it spends. The company does not earn more than it spends.
If the above statements are true, which one of the following must also be true?
(A) If the company does not earn more than it spends, then it does not gain profit.
(B) The company does not gain profit.
Answer
(A) If the company does not earn more than it spends, then it does not gain profit.
&
(B) The company does not gain profit.
Statement | Symbols | Valid/Invalid | Description |
1. If the company gains profit, then it earns more than it spends. | company profit → earn more | Given | Premise 1 |
2. If the company earns more than it spends, then it gains profit. | earn more → company profit | Given | Premise 2 |
3. If the company does not earn more than it spends, then it does not gain profit. | ~earn more → ~company profit | Valid | Contrapositive of premise 1 |
4. If the company does not gain profit, then it does not earn more than it spends. | ~company profit → ~earn more | Valid | Contrapositive of premise 2 |
Premise 1:
If the machine works (MW), then the parts are installed correctly (IC).
MW → IC
Premise 2:
If the parts are installed correctly (IC), then the machine will work (MW).
IC → MW
Conclusion
Biconditional:
The machine will work if and only if the parts are installed correctly.
MW ↔ IC
Premise 1:
If I graduated with honors (GH), then I got a grade of 95% or higher (95).
GH → 95
Premise 2:
If I got a grade of 95% or higher (95), then I will graduate with honors (GH).
95 → GH
Conclusion
Biconditional:
I will graduate with honors if and only if I get a grade of 95% or higher.
GH ↔ 95
Premise 1:
If she attended the birthday party (BP), then she finished all her tasks for that day (FT).
BP → FT
Premise 2:
If she finished all her tasks for that day (FT), then she will attend the birthday party (BP).
FT → BP
Conclusion
Biconditional:
She will attend the birthday party if and only if she finishes all her tasks for that day.
BP ↔ FT
Moving on to the next lessons: Conditional Conjunctions