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The three parts of most Logical Reasoning arguments: Premise(s) + Assumption(s) = Conclusion
These are statements that support a conclusion. They are like evidence.
- Due to..
- Studies have shown…
- As indicated…
- Given that..
- This can be seen from..
While the conclusion and the premises are stated in the argument, assumptions are not. On the LSAT, it’s a crucial skill to be able to identify any assumptions, or gaps, between the evidence and the conclusion.
Assumptions have no indicator words because they are unstated.
You may be asked to identify the conclusion, strengthen it, weaken it, identify why the reasoning in the argument is flawed, or find an answer choice with parallel reasoning to the argument to reach the conclusion.
- For this reason,..
No one ever said the LSAT was an easy test; don’t expect the test writers to make it as simple as described above. Expect patterns such as Premise + Premise = Sub-Conclusion + Premise = Conclusion. We’ll be reviewing these complex structures later in the course.
Parts of a Logical Reasoning Question
The first segment of the question contains an argument or just a series of facts. The premises in the Passage (also known as the Stimulus) on the LSAT are true. Don’t argue with them. So, in this example, you should assume that the price did increase sevenfold for the purposes of the question.
The postal service of Fairfield is badly mismanaged. Thirty years ago, first-class letter delivery cost only three cents. The price has increased sevenfold since then while the reliability and speed of the delivery have declined.
The Stem (aka “the stimulus”) is sometimes in the form of a question and sometimes written as a statement. Be on the lookout for words like “EXCEPT”. What’s so important about the Stem is that it will give you a clue about the question category (giving you a huge insight into the question). We’ll spend most of the logical reasoning course reviewing these 20+ question categories.
Each of the following weakens the above conclusion EXCEPT:
The Answer Choices
There are always five possible choices. Your job is to figure out the one answer that satisfies the requirement in the “best” way. Often this is most efficiently done by finding something “wrong” with 4 out of the 5 answer choices. Other times, one answer will jump out as definitely “right.”
A. The volume of mail handled by the postal service has increased dramatically over the last thirty years.
B. Unprecedented increases in the cost of fuel for trucks and planes have put severe upward pressures on postal delivery costs.
C. Private delivery services usually charge more than the postal service does for comparable delivery services.
D. The average delivery time for a first-class letter three decades ago was slightly longer than it is today.
E. The average level of consumer prices overall has increased fourfold over the last thirty years.
Four-Step Method to Solving Logical Reasoning Questions
Understand the Stem
The LSAT commonly uses only about 20 or so question stem types. In this course we go through these question stem types so you can get a jump start on the question just by reading the stem.
Read the Question
Read carefully and efficiently! You can’t skim much. You’ll need to look carefully for important keywords to identify conculsions and premises.
Predict the Answer
Before you read the answer choices, it can be helpful to come up with your own answer to the question. Don’t try to predict the exact answer, but just get a general idea so you don’t blunder blindly into the answer choices.
If the question is far over your head, it’s time to consider flagging the question and skipping it for now.
Evaluate the Choices
One or two of the answer choices will be absolute junk, so you can make it easier on you by eliminating a few from the start. Work as systematically as you can. Time is a factor, so don’t get into the habit of spending minutes debating your choices.
If you are prone to careless errors and have extra time, take a moment to double check your answer. You can also notate the question to return to it later.
Time & Stress Management
There is no single perfect way to achieve LR success. Try multiple methods and identify what works for you. A successful approach will get you the correct answer quickly and will simplify the process. Your approach needs to work in the approximately 1 minute and 25 seconds per question.
Lawyering is a high-stress profession; you have to think quickly on your feet. That the LSAT emphasizes speed and psychology-under-pressure isn’t a bug; it’s a feature.
Ladder of Difficulty
LSAT questions tend to become more difficult as the section progresses. This means that low scoring students should focus on the earlier questions as they will tend to be easier. If you aren’t a good LSAT student, skipping the final few questions altogether might be a good idea. Those harder questions at the end count as much as the easier ones at the beginning.
Our Logical Reasoning course is organized by the major Logical Reasoning question types. We’ve broken them down into five major question categories:
- Formal Logic
- Matching Arguments
- Modifying Arguments